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Download e-book for kindle: Estimating the Flammable Mass of a Vapor Cloud: A CCPS by John L. Woodward

By John L. Woodward

ISBN-10: 0470935367

ISBN-13: 9780470935361

ISBN-10: 0816907781

ISBN-13: 9780816907786

This CCPS notion publication exhibits designers and operators of chemical amenities how one can realistically estimate the flammable mass in a cloud of by accident published fabric that's in a position to igniting. It presents info on adventure with flammable vapor clouds, easy options of fires and explosions, and an outline of comparable laptop programs.Content:
Chapter 1 advent (pages 1–4):
Chapter 2 evaluation (pages 5–9):
Chapter three reports with Flammable Vapor Clouds (pages 11–29):
Chapter four uncomplicated Concepts—Fluid circulate, Fires, and Explosions (pages 31–130):
Chapter five choice of Flammable Mass (pages 131–167):
Chapter 6 evaluate of similar laptop courses (pages 169–181):
Chapter 7 labored Examples (pages 183–203):
Chapter eight ideas for destiny paintings (pages 205–207):

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Extra info for Estimating the Flammable Mass of a Vapor Cloud: A CCPS Concept Book

Sample text

Two-Phase Discharge Rates from Tanks There are two basic types of two-phase (gaslliquid) flow. The first is the discharge of a superheated, flashing liquid such as chlorine or ammonia at 20 C 38 4. BASIC CONCEPTS-FLUID FLOW, FIRES, AND EXPLOSIONS (68 F). This produces flashing flow, characterized by the vapor mass fraction,& increasing along the flow path as pressure is reduced. The second occurs when a noncondensable gas such as the padding gas (nitrogen or methane typically) is mixed into the discharging liquid, or a runaway reaction generates noncondensable gases.

Natural gas, propane, or heating oil flows into nearly all of our homes. Occasionally the hazard inherent in employing these volatile servants is manifest in spectacular and costly fires and explosions. Such unexpected events remind us of the need to continually improve our understanding of hazardous materials, and with this understanding improve our technology for safely handling and controlling them. For example, recent research has taught us that vapor cloud explosions occur when flame speeds accelerate in congested areas or near a source of mixing such as a jet release.

How Are Flammable Mass Estimates Used? Plant designs increasingly address issues of what can go wrong. “What if’ scenarios are postulated and consequences estimated to facilitate costbenefit decisions in the choice of protective designs, instrumentation, process control, inventories stored on-site, separation distances between units, use of deluge systems, redundancy and routing of fire water systems, etc. As described, for example, in the CCPS book Guidelines for Evaluating Process Plant Buildings for 1 2 1.

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Estimating the Flammable Mass of a Vapor Cloud: A CCPS Concept Book by John L. Woodward

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