By Wiebren de Jong, J. Ruud van Ommen
Concentrating on the conversion of biomass into fuel or liquid fuels the booklet covers actual pre-treatment applied sciences, thermal, chemical and biochemical conversion technologies
• Details the most recent biomass characterization techniques
• Explains the biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes
• Discusses the improvement of built-in biorefineries, that are just like petroleum refineries in inspiration, overlaying such subject matters as reactor configurations and downstream processing
• Describes the right way to mitigate the environmental hazards whilst utilizing biomass as fuel
• Includes many difficulties, small tasks, pattern calculations and commercial program examples
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Extra resources for Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source for the Future: Fundamentals of Conversion Processes
Operational guidelines will pursue emission cuts in a wide range of economic sectors. ” The measurement of changes in net emissions (calculated as emissions minus CO2 removals) from forests is methodologically complex and still needs to be clarified. The Protocol will advance the implementation of existing commitments by all countries. Under the Convention, both developed and developing countries agree to take measures to limit emissions and promote adaptation to future climate change impacts; submit information on their national climate change programs and inventories; promote technology transfer; cooperate on scientific and technical research; and promote public awareness, education, and training.
They relate to nine principles: 1. The greenhouse gas balance of the production chain and application of the biomass must be positive. 2. Biomass production must not be at the expense of important carbon sinks in the vegetation and in the soil. 3. The production of biomass for energy must not endanger the food supply and local biomass applications (energy supply, medicines, building materials). 4. Biomass production must not affect protected or vulnerable biodiversity and will, where possible, have to strengthen biodiversity.
Thus, it forms a potential sink for anthropogenic carbon emissions, although, depending on plant type, the saturation level is reached sooner or later. Furthermore, nutrient availability (fixed nitrogen and phosphor) may hamper growth already before the saturation level has been reached. In the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on December 11, 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted, aimed at the “stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system” (see tinyurl.
Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source for the Future: Fundamentals of Conversion Processes by Wiebren de Jong, J. Ruud van Ommen