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D. W. Budworth and G. Arthur (Auth.)'s An Introduction to Ceramic Science PDF

By D. W. Budworth and G. Arthur (Auth.)

ISBN-10: 0080160964

ISBN-13: 9780080160962

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9. Normal spinel, (a) Plans of the upper and lower halves of the unit cell. ) (b) Arrangement of cubelets. (c) Contents of A and B cubelets. 58 An Introduction to Ceramic Science Fe 2 0 3 ), and the chromites (based on Cr 2 0 3 ). The divalent ion can be Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cu, Co or others. There is also a class of spinels with the general formula 2 A 2 + O . C 4 + 0 2 , of which there are series based on Sn0 2 and Ti0 2 . This list is by no means exhaustive. Spinels of this second type are usually inverse, which means in this case that the octahedral sites are occupied by a mixture of quadrivalent and divalent ions, and the tetrahedral sites are filled by the remainder of the divalent ions.

It also adopts several other structures which are formed by stacking the same basic tetrahedral units in less regular ways. The wurtzite structure is adopted by ZnO, which would not be predicted on radius ratio grounds, as the Zn 2 + ion is more suited in size to octahedral sites. This ion, however, displays a marked preference for tetrahedral coordination by oxygen and may be considered to display appreciable covalency in the bond. This tetrahedral preference of Zn 2 + is evident in spinel structures, which are discussed below.

The corresponding sequences for the face-centred cubic arrangement are as follows: Planes A Tetrahedral interstices First set Second set B A B C A C Octahedral interstices C A B A C B The Bonding of Atoms and the Regular Packing of Spheres 33 So that the tetrahedral interstices are arranged in two interpenetrating face-centred cubic structures {ABC. sequences), and the octahedral interstices form yet another face-centred cubic arrangement. The great symmetry of the face-centred cubic structure is apparent from the symmetry of the patterns of the interstices.

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An Introduction to Ceramic Science by D. W. Budworth and G. Arthur (Auth.)

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