By Ian Clarence Hope
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The conflict of Antietam on September 17, 1862 used to be the 1st significant Civil battle engagement on Northern soil, and it is still the bloodiest single-day conflict in American background. Of the 90,000 troops that fought, over 23,000 have been killed or wounded. Antietam additionally marked an important turning aspect: normal Lee's daring invasion of the North used to be halted, and the Union's good fortune, even though now not exploited, gave President Lincoln the victory he had to make his Emancipation Proclamation.
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Additional resources for A Scientific Way of War: Antebellum Military Science, West Point, and the Origins of American Military Thought
Edward Winslow described the exercise of arms in front of Native guests during the first Thanksgiving Day in 1620. 2 This is not to suggest that the colonial plantations were military exercises. The carriage of arms and the performance of drill during village muster were defensive measures to counter the threat of raids by European foes and Indians. . ”3 In the Christian idea of their day, appropriations of new farming and grazing land and subjugation of the Indians, even by the use of armed force, were natural and correct and did not warrant the name war.
1 Colonial and Early National Military Science W hen fighting began in earnest during the American Revolution, military and political leaders realized that the methods of la petite guerre were not sufficient to beat the might of England, and they sought to acquire European engineering, administration, and artillery expertise to instruct the Continental Army. However, attempts to institutionalize military science ceased with the end of hostilities. Lack of clear threat and changing political and economic circumstances, together with Whig traditions and an accepted narrative of the militia’s effectiveness, beclouded the need for professional military forces or education.
An angle of operation less than 60° or a base of operation that constituted but a single point along a frontier was considered dangerous, as an enemy could outflank an army and sever it from its base. The influence of von Bülow in Europe was significant, and subsequent European works on military science, including Jomini’s, used parts of his system. In fact, Bülow’s work provoked a competition between Jomini and Archduke Charles of Austria regarding what was valid and what was ridiculous about the geometry of military movements.
A Scientific Way of War: Antebellum Military Science, West Point, and the Origins of American Military Thought by Ian Clarence Hope